Effective treatment for opioid use disorders (OUDs) requires medications. Two medications for treating OUDs—buprenorphine and injectable naltrexone—can be prescribed in primary care (PC). However, despite the current opioid epidemic and expert recommendations that OUDs should be treated in PC, most PC clinics do not offer treatment for OUDs. This reflects a lack of consensus among health system leaders and clinicians that OUDs should be treated in PC. The PRimary care Opioid Use Disorders treatment (PROUD) Trial is a pragmatic cluster-randomized, quality improvement trial that evaluates implementation of a team-based approach to PC supported by a full time nurse (the "PROUD intervention"). This type of team-based PC is often referred to as "collaborative care" for management of OUDs in PC, and this type of trial is often referred to as a Hybrid Type III implementation trial. The trial is being conducted in 6 diverse health systems spanning 5 states (New York, Florida, Michigan, Texas, and Washington), with 2 PC clinics in each system randomized. One clinic is randomly selected to implement the PROUD intervention and the other continues usual PC (UPC). The overall objective of the PROUD trial is to provide information to guide health system leaders who are faced with the decision of whether or not to treat OUDs in PC, by evaluating the benefits of implementing the PROUD intervention that integrates high quality OUD treatment (i.e. buprenorphine or injectable naltrexone) into the normal flow of PC. The primary objective of the PROUD trial is to evaluate whether the PROUD intervention increases OUD treatment with buprenorphine or injectable naltrexone, documented in the electronic health records (EHRs) of PC patients, over a 2 year follow-up, as compared to UPC. The primary hypothesis is that there will be a significant increase in the number of patient-days of medication treatment for OUDs documented in the EHR of PC patients in the 2 years after clinics are randomized to the PROUD intervention compared to PC clinics randomized to UPC. This implementation objective reflects whether the PROUD intervention increases initiation of and/or retention in OUD treatment, documented in EHRs within medical settings. The main secondary objective is to test the hypothesis that PC patients with OUDs documented in their EHRs in the 3 years prior to randomization who receive care in PROUD intervention clinics, compared to those who receive care in UPC clinics, will have fewer days of acute care utilization (including urgent care, emergency department [ED] and hospital care) in the 2 years after randomization. This effectiveness objective assesses whether implementation of the MA Model improves patient outcomes.



Eligible Ages
Between 16 Years and 90 Years
Eligible Genders
Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion Criteria

  • The 12 clinics were eligible if their health system leaders agreed they would participate prior to study start.

Patients are eligible for inclusion in the sample for analyses of the PROUD trial if they visited one of the randomized clinics at any time in the 5 year study period. Specific inclusion criteria for the trial are:

1. Age is 16 to 90 years at any time during the study; and

2. Visited a PROUD trial primary care clinic in the 3 years prior to randomization or the 2 years after (note: one of the 6 study sites may only be able to provide EHR data for 2 years before randomization)

Exclusion Criteria

  • Patients who have requested through their health systems to opt out of research will be excluded from this study.

Study Design

Study Type
Intervention Model
Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description
Pragmatic Trial: Six health systems are participating in a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, quality improvement trial (hybrid Type III implementation trial). Each of the 6 health systems provided 2 PC clinics willing to be in the randomized controlled trial. Each health system will implement collaborative care for OUD treatment in one randomly selected PC clinic. All data used to evaluate primary and secondary outcomes are secondary data from the EHR or insurance claims.
Primary Purpose
Health Services Research
None (Open Label)
Masking Description
Statistical analysts (biostatisticians) who analyze trial results will be masked for objectives 1 and 2. Main analyses of the primary outcome will be conducted by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (NDAT CTN) Data and Statistics Center (DSC). The de-identified dataset provided to the DSC by the data management team at Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute will have the identity of the intervention and Usual Primary Care clinic at each site masked.

Arm Groups

ArmDescriptionAssigned Intervention
Active Comparator
PROUD Intervention
Primary care clinics randomized to the PROUD Intervention will implement the Massachusetts (MA) Model of collaborative care for opioids use disorders (OUDs). The PROUD trial provides financial support to cover the nurse case manager (NCM) salary and technical assistance for the duration of the study, but the health systems—not investigators—implement the MA Model as part of quality improvement, and the health system and its clinicians provide all clinical care.
  • Other: PROUD Intervention
    The PROUD intervention includes 3 strategies used to implement the MA Model: 1. Clinic leadership receives funding for a 1.0 full time equivalent NCM for 2 years after randomization and technical support for recruiting and hiring the NCM. Once hired for the study, the NCM will receive technical assistance (TA) from experts at Boston Medical Center (BMC) supported by PROUD, but NCMs will be employed and supervised by the health system. 2. Experts at BMC who originally developed and disseminated the MA Model will: provide intervention clinics with a Manual; train PROUD NCMs at BMC; and provide the ongoing TA for 2 years after randomization. 3. At least 3 primary care providers in the PROUD intervention clinic will obtain DEA waivers to prescribe buprenorphine for OUDs, if not already waivered, and work closely with the NCM to offer high quality primary care for OUDs (e.g. medication treatment with buprenorphine or naltrexone with close follow-up to maximize retention in treatment).
No Intervention
Usual Primary Care
Clinics randomized to usual primary care do not receive any resources or support from the study but are free to improve opioid use disorder (OUD) care in any way they choose.

Recruiting Locations

Montefiore Medical Center
Bronx, New York 10467
Julia Arnsten, MD, MPH

More Details

Kaiser Permanente

Study Contact

Megan Addis


Study information shown on this site is derived from ClinicalTrials.gov (a public registry operated by the National Institutes of Health). The listing of studies provided is not certain to be all studies for which you might be eligible. Furthermore, study eligibility requirements can be difficult to understand and may change over time, so it is wise to speak with your medical care provider and individual research study teams when making decisions related to participation.