Purpose

This 2 x 2 factorial, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial will test two interventions: directly observed medication therapy, and long-term therapy with varenicline among 450 smokers with opioid use disorder recruited from community-based, outpatient opioid treatment programs. The analytic strategy will evaluate the milestones in smoking cessation—achieving initial abstinence, preventing lapse and preventing relapse--necessary for long-term cessation, and evaluate theoretically-guided psychological and social factors and pharmacogenetic factors that influence these cessation processes.

Conditions

Eligibility

Eligible Ages
Over 18 Years
Eligible Genders
All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers
Yes

Inclusion Criteria

  1. ) age ≥18 years old; 2) English or Spanish speaking (i.e., be able to participate in study interviews in English or Spanish); 3) current cigarette smoking (smoked at least 100 cigarettes/lifetime, smoking ≥ 5 cigarettes/day); 4) interest in quitting tobacco smoking; 5) receiving methadone or buprenorphine in the DoSA clinic three to six times weekly; 6) enrollment in a DoSA opioid treatment program ≥ 3 months; 7) stable methadone or buprenorphine dose for two weeks; 8) agreement to use contraception for the duration of the trial (among women with reproductive potential); 9) willingness to participate in all study components; and 10) ability to provide informed consent.

Exclusion Criteria

  1. ) serious or unstable disease, specifically: decompensated cirrhosis (INR≥ 1.7, albumin <2.7 g/dl or physical exam evidence of decompensated cirrhosis); severe cardiovascular disease (MI, PTCA, unstable angina, CABG, and/or serious arrhythmia in the previous 6 months); severe asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (requiring supplemental oxygen or hospitalization in past 6 months); HIV/AIDS (AIDS-defining illness or hospitalization in past 6 months); 2) creatinine clearance <30 mL/min; 3) history of seizure disorder; 4) women who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or contemplating pregnancy; 5) current suicidal ideation; 6) history of suicide attempt in the past year; 7) psychiatric hospitalization in the past year; 8) current DSM V criteria for major depressive episode, current bipolar disorder, or current psychotic disorder; 9) current DSM V criteria for alcohol use disorder; or 10) use of varenicline in the past 30 days.

Study Design

Phase
Phase 4
Study Type
Interventional
Allocation
Randomized
Intervention Model
Factorial Assignment
Primary Purpose
Treatment
Masking
Triple (Participant, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)

Arm Groups

ArmDescriptionAssigned Intervention
Experimental
Long-Term Varenicline
Participants will receive 24 weeks of varenicline at standard doses (0.5 mg/day for days 1 to 3, 0.5 mg twice daily for days 4 to 7, then 1 mg twice daily)
  • Drug: Long-Term Varenicline
    Varenicline tablet x 24 weeks
    Other names:
    • varenicline
    • chantix
Active Comparator
Short-Term Varenicline
Participants will receive 12 weeks of varenicline at standard doses (0.5 mg/day for days 1 to 3, 0.5 mg twice daily for days 4 to 7, then 1 mg twice daily), followed by matching placebo twice daily through week 24.
  • Drug: Short-Term Varenicline
    varenicline tablet for 12 weeks, followed by placebo tablet manufactured to mimic varenicline 1 mg tablet
    Other names:
    • varenicline
    • chantix
    • placebo
Experimental
Directly Observed Therapy
Participants receiving directly observed therapy (DOT) will receive varenicline from opioid treatment program nurses at the same time as they receive methadone, as well as individually packaged take-home doses for self administration on evenings/weekends.
  • Behavioral: Directly Observed Therapy
    Varenicline doses are administered by opioid treatment program nurses
Active Comparator
Self Administered Therapy
Patients receiving varenicline self administered therapy (SAT) will self-administer all varenicline doses.
  • Behavioral: Self Administered Therapy
    Varenicline doses are self-administered

Recruiting Locations

Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University
Bronx, New York 10467

More Details

Status
Recruiting
Sponsor
Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Study Contact

Shadi Nahvi, MD, MS
718 920 5379
snahvi@montefiore.org

Detailed Description

Tobacco use and tobacco-related disease are highly prevalent among persons with opioid use disorders (OUD). Unfortunately, traditional evidence-based smoking cessation interventions have yielded low rates of tobacco abstinence in this group. The majority of trials evaluating smoking cessation treatment interventions among persons with OUD have relied on short-term interventions that do not account for the unique challenges faced by these smokers, specifically, establishing initial abstinence, adhering to evidence-based cessation treatments, and maintaining abstinence once active treatments cease. Long-term smoking cessation medication treatment approaches have shown promise in promoting cessation and decreasing relapse among individuals without OUD, however the applicability of extended medication approaches to smokers with OUD may be limited by poor adherence to smoking cessation medications. Though adherence to cessation medication is strongly associated with cessation success, adherence is especially challenging for persons with OUD. Opioid treatment program-based directly observed therapy (DOT) interventions improve clinical outcomes in HIV and TB, and pilot data suggest that DOT varenicline is associated with increased smoking cessation medication adherence and may increase smoking cessation rates. In this 2 x 2 factorial, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the investigators will test two interventions: directly observed medication therapy, and long-term therapy with varenicline. The analytic strategy will evaluate the milestones in smoking cessation—achieving initial abstinence, preventing lapse and preventing relapse--necessary for long-term cessation, and evaluate theoretically-guided psychological and social factors and pharmacogenetic factors that influence these cessation processes. The investigators will recruit 450 smokers with OUD from community-based, outpatient opioid treatment programs and test the following specific aims: (1) to test the efficacy of directly observed varenicline therapy compared to self-administered varenicline therapy on smoking cessation milestones, (2) to test the efficacy of long-term varenicline compared to short-term varenicline on smoking cessation milestones, and (3) to understand the mechanism of smoking cessation by examining the impact of theory-guided psychological and social factors and of pharmacogenetic factors on cessation milestones.

Notice

Study information shown on this site is derived from ClinicalTrials.gov (a public registry operated by the National Institutes of Health). The listing of studies provided is not certain to be all studies for which you might be eligible. Furthermore, study eligibility requirements can be difficult to understand and may change over time, so it is wise to speak with your medical care provider and individual research study teams when making decisions related to participation.