A Trial of Directly Observed and Long-term Varenicline
This 2 x 2 factorial, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial will test two interventions: directly observed medication therapy, and long-term therapy with varenicline among 450 smokers with opioid use disorder recruited from community-based, outpatient opioid treatment programs. The analytic strategy will evaluate the milestones in smoking cessation—achieving initial abstinence, preventing lapse and preventing relapse--necessary for long-term cessation, and evaluate theoretically-guided psychological and social factors and pharmacogenetic factors that influence these cessation processes.
- Tobacco Use Disorder
- Opioid-use Disorder
- Eligible Ages
- Over 18 Years
- Eligible Genders
- Accepts Healthy Volunteers
- ) age ≥18 years old; 2) English or Spanish speaking (i.e., be able to participate in study interviews in English or Spanish); 3) current cigarette smoking (smoked at least 100 cigarettes/lifetime, smoking ≥ 5 cigarettes/day); 4) interest in quitting tobacco smoking; 5) receiving methadone or buprenorphine in the DoSA clinic three to six times weekly; 6) enrollment in a DoSA opioid treatment program ≥ 3 months; 7) stable methadone or buprenorphine dose for two weeks; 8) agreement to use contraception for the duration of the trial (among women with reproductive potential); 9) willingness to participate in all study components; and 10) ability to provide informed consent.
- ) serious or unstable disease, specifically: decompensated cirrhosis (INR≥ 1.7, albumin <2.7 g/dl or physical exam evidence of decompensated cirrhosis); severe cardiovascular disease (MI, PTCA, unstable angina, CABG, and/or serious arrhythmia in the previous 6 months); severe asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (requiring supplemental oxygen or hospitalization in past 6 months); HIV/AIDS (AIDS-defining illness or hospitalization in past 6 months); 2) creatinine clearance <30 mL/min; 3) history of seizure disorder; 4) women who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or contemplating pregnancy; 5) current suicidal ideation; 6) history of suicide attempt in the past year; 7) psychiatric hospitalization in the past year; 8) current DSM V criteria for major depressive episode, current bipolar disorder, or current psychotic disorder; 9) current DSM V criteria for alcohol use disorder; or 10) use of varenicline in the past 30 days.
- Phase 4
- Study Type
- Intervention Model
- Factorial Assignment
- Primary Purpose
- Triple (Participant, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
|Participants will receive 24 weeks of varenicline at standard doses (0.5 mg/day for days 1 to 3, 0.5 mg twice daily for days 4 to 7, then 1 mg twice daily)||
|Participants will receive 12 weeks of varenicline at standard doses (0.5 mg/day for days 1 to 3, 0.5 mg twice daily for days 4 to 7, then 1 mg twice daily), followed by matching placebo twice daily through week 24.||
Directly Observed Therapy
|Participants receiving directly observed therapy (DOT) will receive varenicline from opioid treatment program nurses at the same time as they receive methadone, as well as individually packaged take-home doses for self administration on evenings/weekends.||
Self Administered Therapy
|Patients receiving varenicline self administered therapy (SAT) will self-administer all varenicline doses.||
- Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Study ContactShadi Nahvi, MD, MS
718 920 5379
Tobacco use and tobacco-related disease are highly prevalent among persons with opioid use disorders (OUD). Unfortunately, traditional evidence-based smoking cessation interventions have yielded low rates of tobacco abstinence in this group. The majority of trials evaluating smoking cessation treatment interventions among persons with OUD have relied on short-term interventions that do not account for the unique challenges faced by these smokers, specifically, establishing initial abstinence, adhering to evidence-based cessation treatments, and maintaining abstinence once active treatments cease. Long-term smoking cessation medication treatment approaches have shown promise in promoting cessation and decreasing relapse among individuals without OUD, however the applicability of extended medication approaches to smokers with OUD may be limited by poor adherence to smoking cessation medications. Though adherence to cessation medication is strongly associated with cessation success, adherence is especially challenging for persons with OUD. Opioid treatment program-based directly observed therapy (DOT) interventions improve clinical outcomes in HIV and TB, and pilot data suggest that DOT varenicline is associated with increased smoking cessation medication adherence and may increase smoking cessation rates. In this 2 x 2 factorial, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the investigators will test two interventions: directly observed medication therapy, and long-term therapy with varenicline. The analytic strategy will evaluate the milestones in smoking cessation—achieving initial abstinence, preventing lapse and preventing relapse--necessary for long-term cessation, and evaluate theoretically-guided psychological and social factors and pharmacogenetic factors that influence these cessation processes. The investigators will recruit 450 smokers with OUD from community-based, outpatient opioid treatment programs and test the following specific aims: (1) to test the efficacy of directly observed varenicline therapy compared to self-administered varenicline therapy on smoking cessation milestones, (2) to test the efficacy of long-term varenicline compared to short-term varenicline on smoking cessation milestones, and (3) to understand the mechanism of smoking cessation by examining the impact of theory-guided psychological and social factors and of pharmacogenetic factors on cessation milestones.